The late s through the s marked Psychology human sexuality paper on movie important turning point in the field of gender research, including theory and research in gender development. The establishment of Sex Roles in as a forum for this research represented an important milestone in the field. We examine Psychology human sexuality paper on movie trends in research on gender development published in Sex Roles since its inception and use this analysis as a vehicle for exploring how the field has grown and evolved over the past few decades.
We begin with a brief review of the history of this field of research since Then, we present a descriptive assessment of articles published on gender development in Sex Roles over time, and link this assessment to general trends that have occurred in the study of gender development over the past 35 years.
We conclude with a discussion of future directions for the field of gender development. In particular, we highlight areas in which the journal could play a role in promoting more diversity in topics, methods, and employed in gender development research.
Does knowing this information make a difference in how parents think about their unborn child? Developmental scientists are concerned with how and why behaviors emerge and change over time, and gender developmental scientists narrow their focus to the study of the origins of gendered behavior and gendered thinking. Gender development researchers, similar to other developmental researchers, focus on questions of change over time Ruble and Martin How early do children learn to identify themselves and others as males or females, and what are the consequences of learning to discriminate and label gender?
At what point in development do girls and boys begin to diverge in their behaviors and interests, and why do these gender differences emerge? When do children develop a sense of male privileged status and when do they form negative attitudes about the other sex?
These questions all concern basic processes underlying the origins and transmission of gender-role attitudes and structures, and are important to understanding broader issues related to the role of gender in shaping individuals, relationships, and social institutions.
These questions have also found their way into the journal Sex Roles. Since its first issue, the journal Sex Roles has published studies focused on children and adolescents.
The presence of such articles in a journal more broadly devoted to the study of gender indicates a longstanding recognition of the importance of understanding the emergence and development of gender across development.
Without having an understanding of developmental changes and of the patterns of change over time, scholars may only have a limited perspective on human behavior.
Gender development researchers strive to fill these gaps in understanding. In this article, we review both the broader history of research on gender development over the past few decades and more specifically address how this research has been represented in Sex Roles.
We believe that the 35th anniversary of Sex Roles provides a unique occasion to expand the mission and scope of the journal to more thoroughly incorporate ideas and research about gender development. We examine the trends in research on gender development published in Sex Roles since and use this as a vehicle for exploring how the field has grown and evolved, and to highlight gaps in knowledge and research.
We conclude with a discussion of future directions for the field of gender development and hope to influence what we see in the next 35 years or more of research in Sex Roles.
The late s through the s marked an important turning point in the field of gender research. For example, inthe current editor of this journal and her co-authors published one of the first textbooks on the psychology of women and gender roles Frieze et al. At that time, these areas were just emerging and the textbook represented an early and important effort to survey and integrate the existing literature.
A recurring theme throughout the text was the white male bias that characterized the existing research and its interpretation. Furthermore, it provided a thorough discussion of the complexities surrounding the relative contributions of biological and social factors in understanding the psychology of women.
Since that time, the field of gender studies has evolved and research on the development of gender-related behaviors and processes has grown considerably. In this section, we briefly review the developments in this field over the past few decades, with a particular focus on innovations in theory and research on gender development. In this section, we provide some perspective on the broader context of research and theory in the field that coincided with the establishment of Sex Roles as a forum for gender research.
These theoretical contributions gave direction to the study of gender in children. Psychology human sexuality paper on movie on research with intersex patients, this book advanced the idea that social factors were more important than biological factors in gender identity and gender roles brought nature-nurture issues to the forefront. This book presented an unparalleled synthesis of research findings on gender differences in development.
It was especially innovative because it challenged the idea that there were numerous differences between the genders; instead, it argued for only a few well-established differences. This book was also important for highlighting that within-gender differences are often larger than those between the genders a point still lost in many of the popularized beliefs held today; for example, see Sax Their ideas also added a new dimension to research in the field by turning attention to group-level peer processes.
The s marked a turning point in terms of how scholars thought about the concepts of sex and gender. Her ideas led scholars to become more selective in their use of the terms sex and gender and to avoid framing research in ways that might hint at biological determinism Poulin Terminology issues have continued to be raised in the field: Also during the s, scholars started to move away from unidimensional and relatively simplistic models about the origins and meaning of gender differences and began to challenge conceptualizations of masculinity and femininity as representing bi-polar opposites.
Most notably, in a conceptual breakthrough with both theoretical and methodological ramifications, Constantinople and Bem argued that males and females possess both masculine and feminine qualities. This idea revolutionized the measurement of these characteristics. Bem also argued that having both masculine and feminine qualities—that is, being psychological androgynous—was optimal for psychological adjustment.
Her research laid the groundwork for subsequent research on gender identity and framed much research over the following years Marecek et al. Huston encouraged researchers to conduct empirical investigations of links between domains of gender typing rather than to infer their existence, as researchers had been doing e.
To provide a framework for organizing existing theoretical constructs and describing different content areas, Huston presented a matrix of gender typing.
This matrix helped focus theoretical debates and organize literature in the field. The matrix also has provided directions for new research. Psychology human sexuality paper on movie important advancement in gender research has been the development and incorporation of meta-analytic methods.
Meta-analysis allows for the systematic quantitative assessment of patterns across the findings of multiple studies and has had considerable impact on the study and understanding of many aspects of the psychology of gender Hyde and Linn Although not an experimental method, the application of
Psychology human sexuality paper on movie to the study of gender differences has once again highlighted the limited nature of differences between the genders and has illuminated the conditions under which gender differences are more or less likely to appear e.
Meta-analyses are themselves not without limitations; they are non-experimental and thus limited in ability to draw cause-effect conclusions and tend to focus on mean differences rather than distributions Knight et al. Nonetheless, they provide important insights into gender development and gender differences. The field of gender development has been dominated by a few prevailing theoretical perspectives that have driven progress and debate in the field.
Some of these competing perspectives have given rise to concepts and related termsmethods, and research studies that have shaped the literature, including the research found in the pages of Sex Roles. In this section, we describe these contrasting perspectives and debates; however, we refer the reader to other sources for detailed discussions of the individual theories that are beyond the scope of what we can do in this article e. Because developmental researchers are interested in the origins of behaviors, it is not surprising, that issues of nature and nurture are theoretically important and that great attention and fervor surround biological versus socialization approaches to understanding gender development Ruble et al.
Biological arguments have long been advanced to justify gender inequality Shields and are often interpreted as deterministic. As such, there is much at stake when biological theories are proposed and research findings are interpreted. Nonetheless, with advancements in research methods and theories addressing biological mechanisms, this field of inquiry has gained acceptance and visibility Ruble et al.
Current biological approaches do not imply determinism and instead emphasize the ways in which biological and social factors interact to produce behavior. Some of the most active research in this area has been on Psychology human sexuality paper on movie with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia CAHa genetic disease in which the fetus is exposed to elevated levels of androgens.
Researchers have found that girls with CAH tend to be masculinized in some aspects of their preferences and behaviors e. Studies of prenatal exposure to normal variations in hormones such as testosterone Cohen-Bendahan et al. Another debate that has received considerable attention in the field has concerned socialization and cognitive approaches to gender development. Despite the disagreements over relative contributions of socialization and cognitive processes, there are a number of similarities in these approaches, and both groups of theorists have conducted studies of cognitive and socialization factors.
For instance, Bussey and Bandura describe some cognitive information-processing mechanisms, such as selective attention, forming cognitive representations, and forming plans of action, that mediate observational learning.
Cognitive theorists describe the ways in which children interpret and respond to messages provided by socialization agents, such as peers Ruble et al.
These controversies have been important for driving new research. For example, researchers have increased efforts to understand early origins of gender differences and have done so by focusing research on younger ages, when gendered cognitions and behaviors first emerge e.
More research has also Psychology human sexuality paper on movie to focusing on links among various cognitive and socialization processes, thus leading to more complex models and studies of gender development for example, see Tobin et al. There is no doubt that the historic changes described above have influenced the research that appears in our scholarly journals.
To explore these trends, we turn our attention to the patterns of publication on gender development within Sex Roles since Our aim is to provide a descriptive medium for presenting trends in the field and this journal, in particular rather than to present an empirical piece with analyses that are an end in themselves.
In taking this approach, we intend to characterize the issues, methods, and age groups that have received attention in the published research, and identify areas that need additional emphasis.
Furthermore, we discuss why conducting developmental investigations is enriching to the field of gender studies, both theoretically and methodologically. To accomplish our goals, we reviewed all articles published in Sex Roles since through and identified abstracts of Sex Roles articles that specifically focused on children and child development for further inclusion criteria, see Appendix A.
We then categorized these articles based on the age of the participants in the study see Fig. Given the large number of articles we compiled and the descriptive purpose of our categorizations, our classifications were based on text provided in the abstracts. Because articles often investigated more than one content area or topic, categorizations were not mutually exclusive.
One of the most challenging aspects of classifying the articles was deciphering the meaning of some terms. In fact, this exercise served to highlight conceptual developments in the field and we felt a discussion of terminology was in itself a revealing way to illustrate important conceptual issues.
As the area of gender development has evolved and expanded, the terminology used has similarly expanded and sometimes the meaning terms have changed over time.
To address this definitional issue, we briefly review these terms, how they have been used, and how we decided to code them in our analyses. They may refer to a the demonstration of knowledge or beliefs about attributes associated with gender categories i.
In accordance with Tobin et al.
Studies investigating masculinity and femininity as proposed by Bem were classified under Gender Identity because this classification is consistent with the intent of the authors of these studies. Thus, we attempted to be sensitive to the multiple types of assessment methods used to investigate gender identity, such as those defined by Perry and his colleagues e. Such distinctions are important. Judgments, perceptions, and attributions might be closely linked with stereotype knowledge and beliefs, but are nonetheless distinct from them.
Behaviors, such as engaging in stereotyped activities or demonstrating stereotyped interactions styles, might also be linked with more cognitive variables, such as stereotype knowledge, but are also distinct from them.
In our classification, we included knowledge and beliefs in the category of stereotyping but included behaviors under Gender Differences.
In this section, we examine the content of articles in Sex Roles and how it relates to the field more broadly.
We focus on the content both in terms of the methods used and the topics covered in the articles. The changes over time Psychology human sexuality paper on movie somewhat surprising when compared to the field see Ruble and Martin This decline seen in Sex Roles might possibly be due to an increase in the number of developmental journals since the s and greater receptiveness of other journals to articles focusing on gender development.
The publications in Sex Roles represented a wide range of developmental stages from infancy to adolescence. In addition, few articles used longitudinal or cross-sectional designs to make age comparisons and test developmental hypotheses.
This course is a study of human sexuality emphasizing psychological aspects. We will Steen Shapiro is a Danish film director, editor and teacher. A rubric will be provided to you, on Canvas, which explains how the paper will be graded. In this article, we celebrate the 35th anniversary of Sex Roles and, of change over time, scholars may only have a limited Psychology human sexuality paper on movie on human behavior.