Email Phone Email required: Enter Characters from Left: Ink Dating is done in two primary forms. The first ink dating method is the static approach, which determines when the ink being examined was manufactured. The second ink dating method is the dynamic approach, this method is to determine when the writing occurred, or in simple terms, how long the ink has been on the paper.
The ink dating static approach is typically more useful as the difference between the date on the document and the present time increases. Several different tests exist in this form of dating.
These ink dating methods include the comparison of the examined ink to a known library of standards, commonly called the library approach, the detection of chemical date tags placed in the ink purposefully by the manufacturer, commonly called the date tag method, and also the determination "Ink dating experts" the type of ink writing instrument used.
The determination of the type of writing instrument is probably the oldest method of ink dating.
This ink dating method primarily involves microscopic examinations and can also incorporate some basic chemical solubility testing. Some examinations can be performed on fountain pens to determine type of nib, type of ink and the first date of introduction of each of these.
However, since this is a very small portion of the actual type of cases seen, we will concentrate Ink dating experts on more recent developments. Other pages discuss the use of infrared to discriminate the differences between inks that visually and microscopically look identical.
The next step would be the most basic ink dating form of thin layer chromatography TLC testing to determine if two or more inks are the same or different formulations. In order to do this the following steps are taken:. Ink dating — chemical tag: The detection of a chemical date tag can disclose the exact year that the ink being examined was manufactured. Other times the results will disclose a range of a few years as possibilities the ink could have been made.
Based on the identification of formulation, which will be discussed next, it may be possible to exclude some of the possibilities and further narrow the range sometimes to only one year.
Manufacturers used two types of chemical date tags in their ink formulations. Neither of these is currently being used.
It should be noted that some ink manufacturers never placed any date tags in their inks. This was to further the identification of inks using the standard ink library approach. To be covered further down this page. InFormulabs of Escondido, California inserted the first type of date tag in their ballpoint inks. This was a single tag was could be extracted with the ink, separated and analyzed with ultra-violet light.
For this reason this type of tag is commonly referred to as a florescent date tag. By the combination of the presence or absence of each tag either a specific year or a range of years could be established.
The procedure most commonly used for the detection, isolation, and analysis of these date tags in ink dating is:. The comparison between the known tag and the questioned ink being examined should focus on whether the florescent compounds are the same color in the known and questioned. No more than three of the four tags were ever used in a given year. These results should then be photographed using ultra-violet light and color film for presentation at Ink dating experts later time if required.
Color slide film has been shown to work well, especially since a print can be made directly from a slide or used in a projector for presentation. Ink dating experts detection of these tags is complicated and Ink dating experts expensive and "Ink dating experts" scientific equipment. Information on these tags is confidential and closely kept. This type of examination is very rarely to never used in actual casework currently.
Ink dating — Alternate Method: Another method for dating inks using thin layer chromatography exists. The ink library approach, as it is commonly referred to, comprises the other portion of the static approach to ink age determination. This involves the comparison of the questioned ink being examined to a known library of inks to determine the manufacturer and formula of the ink.
Then by researching the library information or contacting the manufacturer an exact date of commercial availability can be established. This would be significant if the date the ink was first available is after the date the ink was purportedly written. The method by which questioned ink is compared to a standard "Ink dating experts" ink library is as follows:.
In the stage of final analysis, if all the possible matches are eliminated then no conclusion can be drawn other than that the ink does not match any of the standards in the library. This is another place where a large body of knowledge of running inks is significant, to evaluate differences that attributable to differences in batches of inks and differences that lead to the conclusion of different formulations.
The best way to establish the degree of differences that can be caused by different batches of the same formulation is to run many samples of the same ink that is known to be different batches. With Ink dating experts available in common production this is much easier than with inks that are rare. Any differences that the examiner attributes to differences in batches when making an identification or elimination should Ink dating experts demonstrable in some manner.
If the questioned ink matches more than one of the possible library matches then any of the following may be used to further discriminate some or all of the possible Ink dating experts from the questioned sample if necessary or desired:. The earliest date that the ink could have been available would then be the earliest date of introduction of all the possible matches. If the universe of possible matches is at some point narrowed to one ink formulation, then an opinion Ink dating experts be expressed that the questioned ink matches the formulation from the library to the exclusion of all other formulations in the reference library.
The size of the reference library of the laboratory conducting the examination is also highly important in the chances of success and also in determining the significance of a match.
The only time that a library search will not result in one and only one match is if either the questioned ink is not found in the reference library this is primarily due to the newness of the ink or the incompleteness of the reference library or if several samples from different manufacturers are so similar that they cannot be discriminated from one another.